- EUTELSAT GROUND SEGMENT
What are the compulsory steps to perform in order for an earth station to access the Eutelsat space segment?
Assuming that the space capacity has been reserved, the technical data of the earth station must be submitted for approval to access the Eutelsat space segment. The application is processed on-line, and once the technical data has been verified and the earth station approved, an official approval letter will be sent by e-mail confirming the assigned earth station code and the access conditions. In some cases the earth station may be subject to tests to confirm the performance of the antenna and associated ground equipment.
Before accessing the Eutelsat space segment, it is imperative that the Eutelsat CSC is called in order to carry out a verification test before the transmission takes place.
The above steps are necessary for all types of antennas, including the Eutelsat type approved.
For SNG access, see also the document SNG carriers Universal Access Procedures (PDF, 114 KB)
What type of technical data must be submitted for approval for an earth station to access the Eutelsat space segment?
The following is a list of the data required:
General: Earth station name, Earth station type, Planned service type
Fixed earth station location: Nearest town, Country, Latitude, Longitude, Address, Telephone, Facsimile, e-mail
Service: Type of Service, Planned start date
Antenna: the information required depends on the type of antenna chosen:
Antenna (Other): Manufacturer of main reflector, Model, Type of antenna, Manufacturer of feed, Number of feed ports, Type of receiver, Polarisation, Tracking, Tx and Rx gains, G/T
Type approved or individually approved antenna: Only tracking information and G/T are required for this type of antenna
Transmit Equipment: Type, Rating, Maximum EIRP capability, Overall RMS EIRP stability, Tx frequency stability, Number of Up converters, Number of Down Converters
Why do earth stations need to be attributed a Eutelsat earth station code prior to accessing the Eutelsat space segment?
The Eutelsat earth station code identifies univocally the earth station and in particular, allows the control and monitoring of its access to the Eutelsat space segment.
The code is composed of two or three fields separated by a hyphen:
Country code (maximum three letters, e.g. F for France, ITA for Italy, etc.)
Town or site code (maximum three letters e.g. PAR for Paris)
Progressive three digit code.
For example: F-PAR-001
For transportable earth stations, only the first and third field are normally present: for example: F-999
For VSATs, the second field is replaced by a three-letter code with the abbreviation of the VSAT network name; the third field contains four digits and is followed by the letter V. For example: F-ABC-0001V
Why and how should VSAT operators provide Eutelsat with regular updates of the locations of their terminals?
See Infonote 5: VSAT terminal registration (PDF - 30 KB)
What is a UPPC?
See Infonote 9: Use of UPPC (Up-Link Power Control Units) (PDF, 72 KB)
- What are the compulsory steps to perform in order for an earth station to access the Eutelsat space segment?
- EUTELSAT SPACE SEGMENT
How do you calculate polarisation azimuth and elevation of the Eutelsat satellites?
The linear polarisation planes (defined as X and Y and orthogonal to each other) of most of the Eutelsat satellites are not parallel/orthogonal to the equatorial plane. For historical reasons, the polarisation planes are inclined by an angle with respect to the equatorial plane. This angle is referenced as the polarisation skew.
This value is of fundamental importance for the following types of antennas, whenever the polarisation alignment is performed in open loop (calculated):
• Earth Stations on Vessels (ESVs)
• Satcom-On -The Move (SOTM)
• Auto-pointing antennas
If the pointing and polarisation alignment software of an antenna falling in the categories above did not take duly into account this value of skew, the polarisation discrimination achieved at the end of the alignment would suffer a major degradation with respect to the value which the antenna optics could theoretically yield, with a consequent high risk of interference to other services on the opposite polarisation and the achievable performance would not be met.
The reference X-polarisation is defined as that polarisation whose plane makes an angle of 93.535° in an anti-clockwise direction, looking towards the earth, about a reference vector with respect to a plane containing this vector and the pitch axis.
The reference vector is defined as the vector from the satellite in the direction 0.21° towards west and 6.07° towards north in satellite coordinates.
The reference Y-polarisation is defined as that polarisation whose plane is orthogonal to the Xpolarisation< plane and the reference vector defined above.
In other words the skew of the Eutelsat satellites is +3.535°, clockwise when looking at the satellite from the earth, from anywhere on the meridian (in the northern hemisphere) corresponding to the orbital location of the satellite.
In the southern hemisphere the skew of the Eutelsat satellites is +183.535°, clockwise, from anywhere on the meridian corresponding to the orbital location of the satellite.
There are several satellites of the Eutelsat fleet using linear polarisation which are an exception.
See the attached document on Calculation of azimuth, elevation and Polarization for non-horizontal aligned Antennas (PDF, 3 MB)
- How do you calculate polarisation azimuth and elevation of the Eutelsat satellites?
- LINE-UPs AND ESVAs
What type of tests are performed during an Initial Full Line-up (Digital Line-Up) with a Eutelsat Reference Station (ERS)?
See Infonote 7: Line-Up of Digital Carriers (PDF, 18 KB)
What's the difference between an ESVA and an Initial Full Line-Up (Digital Line-up)?
An ESVA is necessary in order to verify the antenna performance, i.e. the off axis radiation, the cross-polar discrimination Transmit and Receive gain, G/T, maximum EIRP capability.
It is mandatory for antennae with a large dish size.
Minimum requirements for the correct performance of the ESVA are that the antenna should be motorised in Azimuth and Elevation. Nevertheless, ESVA tests can be performed on any type of earth station. In the case of non-motorised antennae, necessary arrangements can be made to enable the angular read-out of the antenna.
Once the performance has been verified and considered acceptable, a certificate of earth station performance granting indefinite and unconditioned access will be delivered to the earth station owner.
If the performance is not acceptable, either the test must be repeated after the necessary adjustments have been made to the antenna, or some limitations will be enforced (typically on the maximum allowed transmit EIRP and also on the duration of the approval).
To find out more, or to arrange for an ESVA test, contact Messrs F.Schurig or K.Badalov
+33 1 5398 4825 or + 33 1 53984976.
The Initial Full Line-Up (Digital Line-up) is strongly recommended for all earth stations transmitting digital signals (digital TV broadcasting, Internet backbone, SNGs etc), but it is not mandatory. This test verifies the whole earth station performance (whereas the ESVA verifies only the antenna performance), including the base-band equipment (i.e. modems, multiplexers).
To find out more, or to arrange for the performance of a digital line-up, contact the earth station approval office (+33 1 5398 4613 or + 33 1 5398 4816) or the ERS (+43 59 059 3 47201).
Why are ESVA tests necessary?
ESVA tests are a very cost efficient means to test an earth station and to ensure that the antenna manufacturer specifications are being met.
By checking the off-axis radiation, Eutelsat ensures that, when transmitting, the earth station antenna will not interfere with other carriers transmitted on satellites adjacent to the satellite being accessed.
By checking the cross-polar performance, Eutelsat ensures that the earth station antenna will not interfere with other services carried on a transponder cross-polar to the one being accessed by the earth station.
Moreover, the transmit antenna gain and G/T can be precisely measured. The ESVA test enables the earth station operator to calibrate the transmit and receive chains and to determine the exact earth station transmit EIRP as well as the maximum earth station EIRP capability.
With the assistance of the Eutelsat Reference Station, the Station Under Test can be properly aligned and therefore prepared for the operational traffic.
What's the cost of an ESVA test?
A fee of 3000€ for up to 10hrs testing, applies to earth stations that commence a chargeable EUTELSAT service within 8 months of the ESVA completion. Additional hours (and hours started) are charged at 600€. Considerably higher rates apply to stations that do not operate within EUTELSAT networks.
What's the cost of an Initial Full Line-Up (Digital Line-Up)?
The test is free of charge.
What are the Universal Access Procedures?
Please see the Universal Access Procedures ITU-R SNG.1710.
- What type of tests are performed during an Initial Full Line-up (Digital Line-Up) with a Eutelsat Reference Station (ERS)?
- MAXIMUM ALLOWED EIRP
How do I calculate the maximum allowed EIRP0 density for Ku-Band Transmissions?
See the document Maximum Allowed EIRP Density for Ku-Band Transmissions (PDF, 71 KB)
How do I calculate the maximum allowed EIRP0 density for C-Band Transmissions?
See the document Maximum Allowed EIRP Density for C-Band Transmissions (PDF, 68 KB)
What’s the EIRP0 density?
The approval to access the Eutelsat space segment stipulates the maximum allowable EIRP density at beam edge (i.e. at the satellite receive contour of 0 dB/K). This specific EIRP density is also known as EIRP0 density. The EIRP0 density can be either referred to 4 KHz or 40 KHz band, its measurement unit is expressed in dBW/4 KHz or in dBW/40 KHz.
How is the maximum allowable transmit EIRP density calculated, knowing the maximum allowable EIRP0 density at beam edge and the site location?
To find out the maximum allowable EIRP from the site where the earth station is located, the calculation is as follows:
Max EIRP density=EIRP0 density - Satellite G/T towards the TX earth station.
The EIRP density can be either referred to 4 KHz or 40 KHz band, its measurement unit is expressed in dBW/4 KHz or in dBW/40 KHz
How is the maximum allowed EIRP calculated, given the maximum allowed EIRP density?
Given a Transmit Symbol Rate(TSR) of X (expressed in KBaud) and a Maximum allowed EIRP density (expressed in either dBW/4 KHz or dBW/40 KHz):
Max allowed EIRP for a signal transmitted with a TSR of X Kbaud= Maximum allowed EIRP density (referred to 4 KHz band)+10*log (X/4)
Max allowed EIRP for a signal transmitted with a TSR of X Kbaud= Maximum allowed EIRP density (referred to 40 KHz band)+10*log (X/40)
In both cases above the measurement unit of the EIRP is expressed in dBW.
- How do I calculate the maximum allowed EIRP0 density for Ku-Band Transmissions?
- TYPE APPROVAL
What is the typical template describing the tests which must be performed for type approving a new antenna?
See the attached template (PDF - 13 KB)
What are the typical requirements for type approving a VSAT radio unit?
See the attached list (PDF - 54 KB)
Can "Non-Type approved antennas" access the Eutelsat space segment?
Yes, access to the Eutelsat space segment is not restricted to type approved antennas only.
There are three types of antenna:
Type approved, which have undergone a long process of verification and testing, often witnessed by Eutelsat and/or other satcom operators. Individual verification is not required for this type of antennae.
Individually approved, which are not type approved but whose performance is known to Eutelsat and for which individual verification is not strictly mandatory. Eutelsat, however, reserves the right to instigate the performance of verification tests at any time should problems occur.
Other antennas not falling into any of the categories above and for which individual verification of the performance is required.
Can “Non-Type-Approved VSATs” access the Eutelsat space segment?
Yes. However VSAT networks usually comprise hundreds or even thousands of VSATs. Therefore in order to roll out a large VSAT network on the Eutelsat space segment it is strongly recommended in order to pro-actively avoid interferences to other services, that the VSATs be type approved and if this is not the case, that the VSATs to be deployed be fully characterized and measurements results be made available to Eutelsat.
What's the difference between a type approved antenna and a type approved VSAT?
A type approval for an antenna (coded EA-Axxx) concerns the antenna only and its radio-electric performance.
A type approval for a VSAT (coded EA-Vxxx) concerns the antenna (and its associated radio-electric performance) as well as the transmit (HPA) and receive (LNA/LNB) equipment.
What's the cost of a type approval?
Type approval fees normally amount to 4000 € for each antenna or VSAT to be type approved. Travel costs (e.g. to witness tests) may be charged on a case-by-case basis.
- What is the typical template describing the tests which must be performed for type approving a new antenna?